Unsolved mysteries on our planet every year becomes less and less. Continuous improvement of technology, cooperation of scientists from various fields of science reveals to us the secrets and mysteries of history. But the mysteries of the pyramids are still not understandable – all discoveries give scientists only tentative answers to many questions. Who built the Egyptian pyramids, what was the technology of construction, whether there is a curse of the pharaohs – these and many other questions still remain without an exact answer.
Description of the Egyptian pyramids
Archaeologists talk about 118 pyramids in Egypt, partially or fully preserved to our time. Their age is from 4 to 10 millennia. One of them – Cheops – is the only surviving “miracle” of the “Seven Wonders of the World.” The complex called the Great Pyramids at Giza, which also includes the pyramid of Cheops , was also considered as a participant in the New Seven Wonders of the World competition, but it was removed from participation, since these magnificent buildings are actually the “wonder of the world” in the ancient list.
These pyramids were the most visited sightseeing objects in Egypt. They are perfectly preserved, which is not the case with many other buildings – time did not spare them. Yes, and the locals contributed to the destruction of the majestic necropolis, removing the facing and breaking the stones out of the walls to build their houses.
Egyptian pyramids were built by the pharaohs, ruling from the XXVII century BC. er and later. They were intended for the rest of the rulers. The huge scale of the tombs (some – up to almost 150 m in height) should have testified to the greatness of the buried pharaohs, here also placed things that the ruler loved during his lifetime and which would be useful to him in the afterlife.
For the construction they used stone blocks of various sizes, which were hollowed out of the rocks, and later brick became the material for the walls. The stone blocks were trimmed and fitted so that a knife blade could not slip between them. Blocks were laid on each other with an offset of several centimeters, which formed the stepped surface of the structure. Almost all Egyptian pyramids have a square base, the sides of which are oriented strictly along the cardinal points.
Since the pyramids performed the same function, that is, they served as the burial place of the pharaohs, then inside the device and the decoration of them are similar. The main component is the burial hall where the ruler’s sarcophagus was installed. The entrance was arranged not at ground level, but a few meters higher, and was camouflaged with facing plates. From the entrance to the inner hall, staircases and corridors led, which sometimes narrowed so much that they could be walked on only by squatting or crawling.
In most of the necropolises, the burial halls (chambers) are below ground level. Ventilation was carried out through narrow mines channels that penetrated the wall. Rock paintings and ancient religious texts are found on the walls of many pyramids – in fact, scientists draw some of the information about the construction and the owners of the graves.
The main mysteries of the pyramids
The list of unsolved puzzles begins with the necropolis form. Why was the pyramid form chosen, which translates as “polyhedron” from Greek? Why are the edges located clearly in the cardinal points? How did the huge stone blocks move from the place of work and how were they raised to a great height? Were not the buildings erected by aliens or people owning a magic crystal?
Scientists even argue over the question of who built such tall monumental buildings that have stood for millennia. Some believe that they were built slaves who died hundreds of thousands on the construction of each. However, new discoveries of archaeologists and anthropologists convince that the builders were free people who received good food and medical care. Such conclusions they made based on the composition of the bones, the structure of the skeletons and the cured injuries of the buried builders.
All deaths and deaths of people involved in the study of the Egyptian pyramids were attributed to mystical coincidences, which provoked rumors and talks about the curse of the pharaohs. There is no scientific evidence of this. Perhaps, rumors were allowed to scare away thieves and marauders who want to find valuable things and ornaments in their graves.
The mysterious interesting facts include the tight deadlines for the construction of the Egyptian pyramids. According to calculations, large necropolis at that level of technology should have been erected no less than a century. How, for example, the pyramid of Cheops was built in just 20 years?
So called the burial complex near the city of Giza, consisting of three large pyramids, a huge statue of the Sphinx and small pyramids of satellites, intended, probably, for the wives of the rulers.
The original height of the pyramid of Cheops was 146 m, side length – 230 m. Built for 20 years in the XXVI century BC. e. The largest of Egyptian attractions has not one, but three funeral halls. One of them is below ground level, and two – above the baseline. Interlaced corridors lead to the burial chambers. On them it is possible to pass to the chamber of the pharaoh (king), to the chamber of the queen and to the lower hall. The chamber of the pharaoh is a chamber of pink granite, has dimensions of 10×5 m. It has a granite sarcophagus without a lid. None of the scientists’ reports contained information about the mummies found, so it is not known whether Cheops was buried here. By the way, the mummy of Cheops was not found in other tombs either.
Until now, it remains a mystery whether the pyramid of Cheops was used for its intended purpose, and if so, it seems the marauders plundered it back in past centuries. The name of the ruler, on the orders and project of which this tomb was built, was learned from the drawings and hieroglyphs above the burial chamber. All other Egyptian pyramids, with the exception of Djoser, have a simpler engineering device.
Two other necropolis in Giza, built for the heirs of Cheops, are somewhat more modest in size:
- The pyramid of Khafre has a height of 143 m, a side length of 215 m. Right next to it is the famous Sphinx, known to the whole world from the photo. A lying stone lion, having a human face, guards the entrance to the tomb. The dimensions of the Sphinx are 73×20 m.
- Pyramid of Mikerin – 66 m in height and 108 m in length. Inside was installed a huge statue of Pharaoh.
Tourists go to Giza from all over Egypt, because this city is actually a suburb of Cairo, and all traffic intersections lead to it. Travelers from Russia usually travel to Giza as part of excursion groups from Sharm el-Sheikh and Hurghada. The trip is long, 6-8 hours one way, so the excursion is usually calculated for 2 days.
Great buildings are available for visits only during working hours, usually before 5 pm, in the month of Ramadan – until 3 pm. Asthma patients and people suffering from claustrophobia, nervous and cardiovascular diseases are not recommended to go inside. On the tour you must take drinking water and hats. Excursion fees consist of several parts:
- Entrance to the complex.
- The entrance is inside the pyramid of Cheops or Khafre.
- The entrance to the Museum of the Solar Boat, on which the body of the Pharaoh was transported across the Nile.
Against the background of the Egyptian pyramids, many people like to take photos while sitting on camels. Owners of camels can bargain.
Pyramid of Djoser
The first pyramid in the world is located in Saqqara, not far from Memphis – the former capital of Ancient Egypt. Today, the Djoser Pyramid is not as attractive to tourists as the Necropolis of Cheops, but at one time it was the largest in the country and the most complex in the engineering project.
The burial complex included chapels, courtyards, and vaults. The six-step pyramid itself has not a square base, but a rectangular one, with sides of 125×110 m. The height of the structure itself is 60 m, inside it there are 12 burial chambers, where Djoser himself and his family members were allegedly buried. Pharaoh’s mummy was not found during the excavations. The entire territory of the complex of 15 hectares was surrounded by a stone wall with a height of 10 m. At present, part of the wall and other buildings have been restored, and the pyramid, whose age is approaching 4,700 years old, has been preserved quite well.